Lesson (8): Arabic Parts of Speech

Verb /̛āl-fiعl/

An action done in a specific timing.

Time is the key towards knowing the verbs of any Language whatsoever; Arabic has Four kinds of verbs:

a- Present /̛āl-fiعl / /̛āl-mudariع/ الفِعل المُضَارِع for present timed actions or nearest immediate future.
b- Past /̛āl-fiعl / /̛āl-mady/ الفِعل المَاضِي for past timed actions.
c- Order / Imperative /̛āl-fiعl/ /̛āl-̛āmr/ الفِعل الأَمر for ordered timed actions in case they are orders directed from persons of high standards to lower standards. However, in our supplications and appeals to Allah we use the order verb form but it is here called supplication like for example in Sami Yusuf's song that is called "Hasbi Rab-bi" he sings "O my Lord accept this plea" i.e. it is a plea and/or supplication.

NB: Order verb form is inferred even if the verbal sentence is just a verb:
For example:
أِكتُب        Write!        /̛iktub/

d- Future tense: indicated in Arabic by addind either the suffix س /sin/ and/or the word سَوف /sawf/.

For example:
سَأقَابِلَك     /sa̛uqābilak/     سَوف أقَابِلَك     /sa̛wf/   /̛uqābilak/     I will meet you

A further tip for verbs either past, present, future or imperative; they all agree in case, number, and gender and take the suffixes indicating such gender as been discussed later.

Noun /̛āl-̛ism/

Names denoting places, persons plants or any related thing.

* Some times there are words that are derived from verbs' roots but they denote actions with no time i.e. nouns for example the word كِتَابة /kitābah/ it is a word denotes the act of writing yet without a specific time i.e. is called /̛āl-masādir/ المَصَادِر i.e. original root of the word (infinitive noun of action).
* Sometimes there are some words that refers to doers of actions like the word كَاتِب /kātهb/ for "writer".
* Sometimes a receiver of an action is the noun; like for example the word مَكتُوب /maktub/ for "written" i.e. passive.
* Sometimes they are words that denote quality like the word جَيد /gayid/ for "good".
* Sometimes they are proper nouns just names.
* Sometimes they are names of places, things, or objects.

Preposition/ Conjunction /̛āl-harf/ and /̛āl-rawābit/

They are words that has no complete meaning in itself; however, are connectors that link the words to form complete meaningful sentences. Description:
* Like for example conjunctions and prepositions that will be dealt with later.

Arabic Sentences are three kinds
Verbal and Nominal and Quasi-Sentence

Verbal الجُملة الفِعلية
/̛āg-gumlah/ /̛āl-fiعlyah/
Nominal الجُملة الاسمية
/̛āg-gumlah/ /̛āl-ismiyah/
Quasi-Sentence شبه الجملة
/shibh/ /̛āg-gumlah/
When an Arabic sentence starts with any Verb whatsoever it is called a Verbal Sentence. When an Arabic sentence starts with Noun it is called Nominal Sentence. When an Arabic sentence starts with a preposition it is called Quasi-Sentence.
Verb فِعل /fiعl/
Doer of Action فاعِل /fāعil/
Object مَفعول بِه /mafعul/ /bih/
Primate مُبتَدأ /mubtada̛/
Predicate خَبر /khabar/
For example:
Past tense:
He read the lesson yesterday.
قَرَأ الدَرس البَارِحة
/qara̛/ /̛ād-dars/ /̛āl-bariha/
Present and/or immediate nearest future:
He reads the lesson.
يَقرَأ الدَرس
/yaqrā/ /̛ād-dars/
Kinds of Predicate:
1- Singular Predicate: neither a sentence nor a quasi-sentence.
For example: العَمَل جَيد /̛āl -عamal/ /gayid/ The work is good.
2- Nominal Sentence Predicate.
For example: المَدرَسة مِساحَتُها كَبِيرة /̛āl-madrasah/ /misahatiha/ /kabirah/ School's area is large.
3- Verbal Sentence Predicate.
For example, العَمَل يُنَمي المُجتَمَع /̛āl-عamal/ /yunami/ /̛āl-mugtamaع/ Work develops the society.
Verbs agree with the doer of action in case, gender and form as seen below: رَجِعَ فَادِي
Fady returned
/ragiعa/ /fadi/
رَجٍعَت عَليَاء
Aliaa returned.
/ragiعat/ /عlia̛/

NB: Any transliterated word from now on will be written between two slashes in which a syllabus is written to form a word. Like for example the verb /ka/ + /ta/ + /ba/ {three syllabuses) means /kataba/ {one word} for the verb "to write".