Lesson (7) Better Understanding of the Word and Sentence Structure

Keywords:    Root - Vowel Pattern – Affixation


* Basic Arabic Word without any Affixes.
By root we mean that we can never omit and/or drop any of those basic rooted letters or else they will not be meaningful.

* Arabic Basic word root is three letter to form the verb root /faعala/ فَعَلَ. In this case they are called tri-consonantal verbs i.e. have three basic consonants.
For example:
فَعَلَ -> كَتَبَ /kataba/
i.e. to write

* Sometimes the basic word root is four letters to form the verb root /tafaعala/ تَفَعَلَ. In this case they are called tetra-consonantal verbs i.e. have four basic consonants.
For example:
تَفَعَلَ -> تَرجَمَ e.g. /targama/
i.e. to translate

Vowel Pattern

* 2nd part is the vowel pattern as when added to the root it forms various pronunciations

* NB: Described previously and will be dealt with later in the course.

Affixation (suffix – infix – or prefix)

1- Affixes – suffix (added after the basic root) – infix (added inside the basic root)
– or prefix (added before the basic root)
– of past, present, order or future tenses added to the either types of roots described in the 1st column.

2- Affixes may be added to words to form singular, plural and/or dual word structures.

NB: Will be described later in the course.

NB: * There is also kind of words that amalgamates between consonants and vowels e.g. the verb قَال /qāl/ "to say".
* Don’t forget that all cases has its irregularities that will be known by greater knowledge and more deep Arabic learning and reading.

A general Note on the most important Arabic roots that forms miscellaneous Arabic words as more than this will be an off point for our elementary/ intermediate reader/ learner:

Consider the table below for the verb /kataba/ كَتَبَ to write

Arabic word Arabic root Transliteration of Arabic word Meaning and/or Case
كَتَبَ فَعَلَ /kataba/ He wrote (past) (masculine)
اُكتُب أُفعُل /̛uktub/ Write (Order)
يَكتُب يَفعَل /yaktub/ He writes
كاتِب فَاعِل /katib/ Having written and or writer
كِتَاب فِعَال /kitab/ A book
كُتُب فُعُل /kutub/ Books
كِتَابة فِعَالة /kitabah/ Act of writing
مَكتَب مَفعَل /maktab/ Office
مَكاتِب مَفَاعِل /makatib/ Offices
مَكتَبة مَفعَلة /maktaba/ Library
مَكتوب مَفعول /maktub/ Written (Masculine)
مَكتوبة مَفعولة /maktuba/ Written (feminine)
مَكتوبين مَفعولين /maktuben/ Written (plural)